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Types of Cancer
Anal cancer:

Anal cancer is a cancer that affects the tissues of the anus. Most anal cancers are squamous cell cancers. Squamous cells are a type of cell that line the surface of the anal canal.

Rarer types of anal cancer include basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and adenocarcinoma of the anus, a cancer of the cells that make the mucus that helps the stools (faeces) move smoothly out of the anus.

Bladder Cancer:

Bladder cancer is when abnormal cells in the bladder grow and divide in an uncontrolled way.

There are different types of bladder cancer:

  • Urothelial carcinoma, formally known as transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common form of bladder cancer (80-90%) and starts in urothelial cells in the bladder wall's innermost layer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the thin, flat cells that line the bladder
  • Adenocarcinoma is a rare form which starts in mucus-producing cells in the bladder.
Bone Cancer:

Bone cancer can refer to primary bone cancer or secondary bone cancer and the two types are quite different. Primary bone cancer is cancer that begins in the bones. Secondary (metastatic) bone cancer refers to a cancer that started elsewhere in the body and has spread to the bones.

Bowel Cancer:

Bowel cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women and is more common in people over the age of 50. Bowel cancer, also known as colorectal cancer, develops from the inner lining of the bowel and is usually preceded by growths called polyps, which may become invasive cancer if undetected. Depending on where the cancer begins, bowel cancer may be called colon or rectal cancer.

Breast Cancer:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women (apart from non-melanoma skin cancer) and the second most common cancer to cause death in women, after lung cancer. Breast cancer is the abnormal growth of the cells lining the breast lobules or ducts. These cells grow uncontrollably and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Both men and women can develop breast cancer, although it is uncommon in men.

Brain Cancer:

Brain cancers include primary brain tumours, which start in the brain and almost never spread to other parts of the body, and secondary tumours (or metastases), which are caused by cancers that began in another part of the body.

There are more than 40 major types of brain tumours, which are grouped into two main types:

  • Benign - slow-growing and unlikely to spread. Common types are meningiomas, neuromas, pituitary tumours and craniopharyngiomas.
  • Malignant - cancerous and able to spread into other parts of the brain or spinal cord. Common types include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, glioblastomas and mixed gliomas
Cervical Cancer:

Cervical cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lining of the cervix. The most common cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, accounting for 80% of cases. Adenocarcinoma is less common and more difficult to diagnose because it starts higher in the cervix.

Head and Neck Cancer:

Head and neck cancers occur inside the sinuses, nose, mouth and salivary glands down through the throat. Although these cancers are different, they are treated similarly, so are considered as a group.

Kidney Cancer:

Kidney cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the kidney. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, accounting for about 90% of all cases. Usually only one kidney is affected, but in rare cases the cancer may develop in both kidneys.

Other less common types include:

  • Urothelial carcinoma which can begin in the ureter or renal pelvis where the kidney and ureter meet. It is generally treated like bladder cancer.
  • Wilms tumour, which is the most common type of kidney cancer in younger children.
Leukaemia:

Leukaemias (or leukemias - U.S. spelling) are cancers of the white blood cells, which begin in the bone marrow.

Leukaemias are grouped in two ways: the type of white blood cell affected? lymphoid or myeloid; and how quickly the disease develops and gets worse. Acute leukaemia appears suddenly and grows quickly while chronic leukaemia appears gradually and develops slowly over months to years.

This information refers to four types of leukaemia; acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).

Liver Cancer:

Primary liver cancer is a malignant tumour that begins in the liver. There are different types:

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or hepatoma, is the most common type of primary liver cancer and it starts in the main cell type in the liver, the hepatocytes
  • Cholangiocarcinoma, or bile duct cancer, starts in the cells lining the bile ducts (which connect the liver to the bowel and gallbladder)
  • Angiosarcoma, which starts in the blood vessels. This is a rare type of liver cancer that is more likely to occur in people over 70.
Lung Cancer:

Lung cancer starts when abnormal cells grow and multiply in an uncontrolled way.

Lymphoma : Lymphomas refers to types of cancer that begin in the lymphatic system (the various lymph glands around the body). Lymphomas are the sixth most common form of cancer overall (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer).

There are two main types of lymphoma, which spread and are treated differently:

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (which accounts for about 90% of lymphomas)
  • Hodgkin lymphoma (which has a characteristic appearance in biopsies).

The risk of being diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma by age 85 is 1 in 39. The risk of being diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma by age 85 is 1 in 414. There are around 40 subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and they vary in how fast they grow and spread, and how sick people feel. They are not all treated the same.

Mesothelioma:

Mesothelioma is a cancer affecting the mesothelial cells which cover most internal organs. There are two main types of mesothelioma; pleural and peritoneal.

Mouth:Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer or cancer of the oral cavity, is often used to describe a number of cancers that start in the region of the mouth. These most commonly occur on the lips, tongue and floor of the mouth but can also start in the cheeks, gums, roof of the mouth, tonsils and salivary glands. Mouth cancers are generally classified as head and neck cancer

Myeloma:

Myeloma is a type of cancer that develops from plasma cells in the bone marrow. Myeloma is often called multiple myeloma because most people (90%) have multiple bone lesions at the time it is diagnosed.

Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. They are part of the immune system and help fight infection. When cancerous, these abnormal plasma cells spread throughout the bone marrow so that there is not enough space to make enough normal blood cells.

Bone marrow is found in multiple areas of the body including the spine, skull, shoulders, ribs and pelvis.

Oesophageal Cancer:

Oesophageal cancer (or esophageal cancer - U.S spelling) is a malignant tumour found anywhere in the oesophagus. The main types of esophageal cancer are:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma which starts in the cells that line the oesophagus.
  • Adenocarcinoma which starts in the glandular tissue of the cells lining the oesophagus
Ovarian Cancer:

There are three types of ovarian cancer: the common epithelial type (90% of cases) that arises from the cells on the outside of the ovary; the germ cell type (around 4% of cases) that arises from the cells which produce eggs; and the rare stromal type arising from supporting tissues within the ovary.

Pancreatic Cancer :

Skin cancer occurs when skin cells are damaged, for example, by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

There are three main types of skin cancer:

  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • Melanoma - the most dangerous form of skin cancer

Both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are known as non-melanoma skin cancer.

Prostate Cancer :

Prostate cancer develops when abnormal cells in the prostate gland grow more quickly than in a normal prostate, forming a malignant tumour.

Skin cancer :

Skin cancer occurs when skin cells are damaged, for example, by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

There are three main types of skin cancer:

  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Melanoma - the most dangerous form of skin cancer

Both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are known as non-melanoma skin cancer.

Stomach Cancer:

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, usually begins in the lining in the upper part of the stomach

Testicular Cancer:

Testicular cancer is the second most common cancer in young men (aged 18 to 39).The most common type is seminoma, which usually occurs in men aged between 25 and 50 years. The other main type is non-seminoma, which is more common in younger men, usually in their 20s.

Throat Cancer:

Throat cancer generally refers to cancers that start in the pharynx or larynx (voice box), but can also refer to cancers that start in the oesophagus (food pipe) or thyroid. Some cancers which begin in the throat area, as well as the tongue, salivary glands, sinuses, nose or ear, are classified as head and neck cancers.

The two main types of cancer that are commonly referred to as throat cancers are pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers.

Thyroid Cancer:

There are several different types of thyroid cancer, the most common is papillary thyroid cancer, which usually grows in one lobe of the thyroid gland (about 70-80% of all cases). Follicular thyroid cancer accounts for about 20% of thyroid cancers.

Less common thyroid cancers include medullary thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer and thyroid sarcoma or lymphoma.

Uterine Cancer:

There are two main types of uterine cancer. Endometrial cancers begin in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and account for about 95% of all cases; and uterine sarcomas, which develop in the muscle tissue (myometrium), and is a rare form of uterine cancer.

Vaginal Cancer:

There are two main types of uterine cancer. Endometrial cancers begin in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and account for about 95% of all cases; and uterine sarcomas, which develop in the muscle tissue (myometrium), and is a rarer form of uterine cancer.

Vulvar Cancer:

Vulvar cancer (also known as vulvar cancer, cancer of the vulva or vulvar cancer) is a cancer that occurs in any part of the external female genitals. Vulvar cancer most commonly develops in the labia minora (inner lips), the labia majora (outer lips), and the perineum (skin between the vagina and the anus).